Functional Diagram of Computer:
Buses: Circuits that are provided between two or more devices like CPU (Central Processing Unit) and Peripherals for communication are called Buses. these are parallel electrical lines. All 8 bit PCs have built-in eight line data buses.
Registers: It is a device capable of storing a specific amount of data. In microprocessor chips there are circuits and special storage locations, to perform arithmetic and control functions called Registers.
Hardware: The functional units of a computer system and programs assembled to accomplish specific tasks is called hardware devices. The System Unit containing various electronic circuit boards make the whole computer function effectively irrespective of its size.
Central Processing Unit(CPU): The main component of a computer hardware system is the Processing Unit. It is called a processor in large or microprocessor in small computers. It is called CPU when more than one unit is added on a centrally placed processing unit to store and process data. It has three parts. The heart of the system is the Primary Memory or Storage. In this both data and programs are stored.
An Arithematic Logic Unit (ALU) performs the calculations and makes comparisons between units of data.
A Control Unit controls the operations of all the hardware as the program dictates CPU establishes the power of a hardware which is described in terms of the size of the memory. While the memory is measured by the number of characters of data it can store, the speed of the Control and ALU is measured in Million Instructions per Second (MIPS) or Megahertz.
Speed: The speed of the processor is governed by two thing, which are the number of operating cycles and the amount of data it can process in one cycle. In an operating cycle an amount of data from memory to ALU is transferred by the processor, calculates it and transfers the results back to the memory and then to the output device.
Next: Primary Storage